|Ollerton, J; Liede-Schumann, S; Endress, M E; Meve, U; et al., : The diversity and evolution of pollination systems in large plant clades: Apocynaceae as a case study, Annals of Botany, 123, 311–325 (2019), online: 2018-08-07, doi:doi: 10.1093/aob/mcy127 [Link]|
Key Results: Most Apocynaceae are insect pollinated with few records of bird pollination. Almost three-quarters of species are pollinated by a single higher taxon (e.g. flies or moths); 7 % have bimodal pollination systems, whilst the remaining approx. 20 % are insect generalists. The less phenotypically specialized flowers of the Rauvolfioids are pollinated by a more restricted set of pollinators than are more complex flowers within the Apocynoids + Periplocoideae + Secamonoideae + Asclepiadoideae (APSA) clade. Certain combinations of bimodal pollination systems are more common than others. Some pollination systems are missing from particular regions, whilst others are over-represented.